According to Kellogg School of Management’s 2011 study, the human need of self-expression is not unlimited, and it can be met.

Despite confirming that brands, and specifically lifestyle brands, have a leading role in this dynamics, the authors also point out that the same need can be met even through “unbranded” behaviours and self-expression techniques.

The consequences for those supposed to manage a lifestyle brand are controversial: on one side, a lifestyle brand is more likely to win the comparison with the competition in its market segment; on the other one, it will have to fight within an extended competing arena, beyond brands, including unbranded behaviours and self-expression techniques.